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Biophysical Milieu

Biophysical Milieu


The Ndu Council Area shows a wide variety in its relief, with altitudes ranging from 700m above sea level in the Mbaw plain to about 2100m above sea level at Mbiyeh in Talla village near Ndu town. Characteristic features include many hills with gentle to steep slopes, some plateau and a plain (the Mbaw plain which is part of the Tikar plain of the North West, West and Adamawa Regions). Most of the high altitude parts of the area lie on the highland mountain chain of the North West and West Regions of Cameroon.


There are two climatic features: the mountainous part with altitudes of 1500m as presents a cold climate and the Mbaw plain is hot most of the year.  Minimal daily temperatures range between 9,5 to 13,7°c while maximum temperatures ranges19,5 and 25,1°c.  The area is characterized by two seasons; the rainy season and the dry season.  The annual rainfall is about 2000mm while the annual sunshine hours are about 2000.    The low lying part of the area, especially the Mbaw Plain, is hot for most of the year. The highest temperatures are recorded in March, just before the start of the rainy season. The heaviest rains, which sometimes result to torrential floods, come in July and August. The lowest temperatures in Donga Mantung are recorded in this area during the months of December, January and February


The vegetation of the area also varies with the ecological sub zones. The high altitude parts are characterized by sparsely woody savannah whereas tall grass species grow in the lowlands around the area of transition between the two main sub ecological types. Only small patches of natural forests are found especially along the valleys of the mountainous zones and in the plain. Much of the natural vegetation in Ndu, Talla and Wowo villages has been replaced with eucalyptus plantations. In fact, the great modification that has been effected on the natural vegetation of the area is attributed to human activities like farming, grazing and construction works.


Three main soil types are found;

  • Sandy clay or ferrallitic soils in the mountainous part
  • Sandy loam soils from deposit along stream banks
  • Rich alluvial soils in Mbaw plain and some valleys;

In the past land ownership by women was inexistent and land acquisition is through inheritance.  With recent evolution, women are acquiring land through purchase and to a less extent they inherit family land


More than 20 small streams take their rise from the mountainous parts of the area and flow generally to the north-east, east and south-east. The sources of most of these streams are potential water catchment for the communities. Two large streams flow from the North toward Njimnjong: one passing through Ntumbaw village and the other passing in Luh village are flowing in from neighbouring Bui Division. Two very small natural lakes exist at the outskirt of Ntumbaw village.  There are two other artificial lakes existing in the municipality, notably at Sahsah in Njifor and the Ndu Fon’s Palace.

Mineral Resources

Mineral resources include iron ore, sand, stones and laterite.  Sand is abundant in the municipality, but most of the sand is not of good quality.  Good quality sand is mainly available in Ntaba at the border with Nwa.  Stone quarries are abundant in the municipality and is of the best quality.  The products are either used for house or road construction.  The construction and tarring of the Ntaba – Ntumbaw road used only material from the Ntaba quarry which is quite unique.   There is also another concrete stone quarry (stone ores) in Mbipgo and Njifor of excellent quality.  Other stone quarries are dotted all over the municipality.   These are areas that can be exploited by construction companies for quality road work in the municipality and elsewhere in the country.

Protected Areas

Protected areas are limited in the municipality and there is no strict implementation of the law with regard to them.  The most noticeable ones include the Mbibi community forest in the Talla, the Njilah/Njimnsa Forests in NJilah, the Mbandfung sacred forest, the Njiningo and Njipkfu forest in Ndu, the Luh Sacred Forest and much other smaller sacred forests around Fons’ palaces.  Many natural tree species exist in these areas and provide a rich biodiversity for the region.  However, irrational and illegal exploitation has led to the loss of some species.  More or less these protected areas are more protected by traditional norms than the application of state laws.  Moreover the Ministry of Forestry and wildlife has just a single worker to cover the entire municipality.

Ndu Sub Division was created by presidential decree No. 93/322 of 25/11/1993.

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